Here, we test this adaptive hypothesis using the comparative method, analysing habitat data for 117 genera of grasses, representing 15 C4 lineages. The biome specialist lineages showed the highest speciation rates, suggesting a major role of bioclimatic specialisation on macroevolutionary patterns. However, as they are based solely on extant species their ability to accurately depict past events can be questioned. ... An unrelated but equally important climatic feature in this region is the global cooling and associated biome shifts that occurred throughout the Miocene (Zachos et al., 2001;Edwards et al., 2010). The data suggest that, towards the end of the Cretaceous, this clade spread throughout southern South America. approaches. Even major geological and climatic events leave minor signatures on LTT plots. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. Four major supported stages in vegetation turnovers are recognized: (1) Paleocene and Early Eocene floras were rainforest-dominated, including many angiosperms with warm-temperate affinities (e.g., palms, Juglandaceae, Casuarinaceae). Geofizicheskii Zhurnal (Geophysical Journal). Active tectonic processes in the Mesozoic - Cenozoic resulted in the complex evolution and the magnetic sources of PMA along the AP margin forming. 2003, NECLIME is an international network since 1999 focusing on paleoclimatic patterns through time and space including interactions between paleogeography, vegetation and fauna combined with modelling. ABSTRACT The data indicate that the development of grassland ecosystems on most continents was a multistage process involving the Paleogene appearance of (C3 and C4) open-habitat grasses, the mid-late Cenozoic spread of C3 grass-dominated habitats, and, finally, the Late Neogene expansion of C4 grasses at tropical-subtropical latitudes. ASSEMBLY OF THE GRASSLAND BIOME: CONTINENT-SPECIFIC PATTERNS The evolutionary history of grasslands can be broken down into several distinct stages: (a) the Paleogene appearance of C3 open-habitat grasses; (b) the Paleogene appearance of C4 open-habitat grasses; (c) the mid-late Cenozoic emergence of open, C3 grass-dominated habitats; and finally, in some regions, (d ) the late … Title: Evolution of grasses and grassland ecosystems: Publication Type: Journal Article: Year of Publication: 2011: Authors: Strömberg CAE: Journal: Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Sciences: Volume: 39: Pagination: The 3D objects produced during this study will contribute to a family wide digital reference collection for use by paleobotanists and grass taxonomists worldwide. 3. Various biotic and abiotic factors have been proposed to have an impact on mammal diversification, such as climatic and tectonic changes, the acquisition of new traits, and expansion into new ecosystems or landmasses. These depressions and grabens formed during Late Cretaceous, Early Paleogene and Early Neogene. Spatial heterogeneity of the various segments of PMA can also be associated with a variety of depth, power and magnetic susceptibility of individual units that form the source of regional anomalies. The structure of the living Patagonian flora, dominated by the steppe, is a direct consequence of past climatic and tectonic events. Caviomorph rodents constitute a highly diverse clade of Neotropical mammals. In the past decades, several new approaches have been applied to the fossil record of grasses to elucidate the patterns and processes of this ecosystem transformation. A remarkable allometric effect was observed for specific mandibular traits. The evolution of grasses using C 4 photosynthesis and their sudden rise to ecological dominance 3 to 8 million years ago is among the most dramatic examples of biome assembly in the geological record. In general, Asian eomyid genera disappeared earlier than their European counterparts. Formation and development of the grabens was controlled by tensional normal faults, characterized by steep dip in the upper parts and gentle dip in the lower parts of the fault planes. The grassland ecosystems cover above 60% of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and provide important ecosystem services and functions at local and regional scales. For more information go to www.neclime.de The convergent morphological changes reconstructed for chinchillids and cavioids, related to the consumption of fibrous items, can be interpreted as being triggered by the strong modifications in the floras of South America initiated during the global cooling event at the Eocene-Oligocene transition (Prothero, 1994;Barreda & Palazzesi, 2007; ... Woodburne et al. The PRH has two main postulates: highland interglacial refugia and a species pump mechanism catalysed by climatic changes. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Macroecological patterns of mammals across taxonomic, spatial, and temporal scales, Legacies of inequality: the case of Brazil, Integration and diversity of the caviomorph mandible (Rodentia: Hystricomorpha): assessing the evolutionary history through fossils and ancestral shape reconstructions, An escape-to-radiate model for explaining the high plant diversity and endemism in campos rupestres †, Lineage through time analyses have their limitations: the case of the New Zealand flora, The Eomyidae in Asia: Biogeography, diversity and dispersals, Two Late Cretaceous sauropods reveal titanosaurian dispersal across South America, Afrotropics on the wing: phylogenomics and historical biogeography of awl and policeman skippers, A multi-layered approach to the diversification of squirrels, New cranial material of Miotragocerus monacensis (Mammalia: Bovidae) from the late Miocene hominid locality Hammerschmiede (Germany), Evolution of arid Australia and consequences for vertebrates, Patagonian Vegetation Turnovers during the Paleogene-Early Neogene: Origin of Arid-Adapted Floras, Pollen preservation in alkaline soils of the American Southwest, Palynology and Palynofacies of the Upper Tertiary in Venezuela, THE EARLIEST REMAINS OF GRASSES IN THE FOSSIL RECORD, Ecological selection pressures for C4 photosynthesis in the grasses, 4.3. I first exploit variation in temperature and precipitation to instrument for the local distribution of land in 1920 using a two stage least squares instrumental variables framework. With eggs distributed in three levels along three kilometres, the new site is one of the largest ever found and provides further evidence of nesting site philopatry among Titanosauria. (2014) suggested that the first grazing mammalian assemblages are recognized at that time, in relationship to a progressive development of open landscapes and the beginning of the expansion of grasslands. Both the Nearctic lineages and the terrestrial-adapted lineages showed high speciation rates, highlighting the fact that that major evolutionary episodes may produce confounding effects in state-dependent diversification models. The study of North American Tertiary mammals the phylogeny of these evolutionary ecological! 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